English Lexicology

Peprník, Jaroslav

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Contents
Obsah Lexical meaning. Word and meaning...........................................................3 Reality, concept, meaning..............................................3 Word and lexeme - two fundamental terms................................3 Motivation.............................................................4 Components of meaning..................................................6 Vagueness of meaning...................................................7 Word as a sign.........................................................7 konicity in language...................................................9 Reality: same or different?............................................9 Analysis of meaning........................................................9 Onomasiology, semasiology, semantics, semiotics........................9 Analysis into semantic elements.......................................10 Samples of subsystems.................................................11 Vocabulary as a system....................................................12 Centre and periphery..................................................12 Subsystems (lexical fields)...........................................13 Summary of the section “Lexical meaning”..............................14 <» Relation meaning - form..................................................15 Polysemy..............................................................15 Synonymy..............................................................15 Hyponymy, hyperonymy..................................................19 Homonymy..............................................................19 Antonymy..............................................................22 Changes of meaning •••••••••••¦••••••••••a 1. Widening of the meaning............................................. 2. Narrowing of the meaning............................................ Deterioration..........................................................26 Amelioration...........................................................26 3. Branching...........................................................27 4. Transfer of meaning.................................................27 Metaphor..........................................................28 Metonymy..........................................................33 Synecdoche........................................................34 1. Change in the denotation:...........................................34 2. Change in the language system.......................................35 3. Change in the interpretation of the meaning.........................35 4. The need for more or for less expressivity..........................36 Vocabulary layers. aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaeeaaaaaaeaaaaaaaaaaaaaaeaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaacaaaaeaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 1. Territorial differentiation...............................................37 2. Social differences........................................................40 Cockney.................................................................40 Professionalisms........................................................40 121 hi Ł Ł 3. Stylistic differentiation:.............................................42 Informal vocabulary :................................................42 Negative connotation in informal vocabulary.......................42 Positive or neuter connotation:...................................44 Formal vocabulary....................................................46 Poetic vocabulary....................................................46 Technical terms......................................................47 4. Time differentiation...................................................48 A) Dated or archaic.................................................48 B) Neologisms.......................................................48 5. Differentiation in origin..............................................51 Latin................................................................51 Scandinavian.........................................................52 Norman...............................................................52 Latin and Greek from the Renaissance.................................54 Internationalisms....................................................55 European languages...................................................56 French............................................................56 German............................................................59 Dutch.............................................................60 Scandinavian......................................................60 Yiddish...........................................................60 Italian...........................................................61 Spanish...........................................................62 Portugese.........................................................63 Russian...........................................................63 Polish............................................................63 Czech.............................................................63 Celtic............................................................64 Non - European.......................................................64 6. Expressivity differentiation...........................................67 Formal means of expressivity.........................................68 A. Acoustic:.....................................................68 B. Written:......................................................68 C. Syntactic:....................................................68 D. Morphological - lexical (some types of word formation):.......69 1. Derivation:.......................................................69 2. Composition:......................................................70 3. Conversion........................................................70 4. Shortening........................................................71 5. Interjection......................................................71 Pet names............................................................73 Familiar names.......................................................73 Diminutives..........................................................74 Childrens’ words.....................................................75 • Euphemism..........................i.................................75 122 Proper names.................................................................78 Anthroponyms.......................................................79 First names...................................................79 Surnames......................................................85 Surnames into common names....................................89 Firstname + surname...........................................91 Ethnonyms.....................................................92 Zoonyms............................................................94 Place names........................................................95 Place names into common names................................Ill Trade names.......................................................113 Bibliography...............................................................117 Contents...................................................................121 f 123
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264 #1 $a Olomouc, $b UP ; $c 1998
300 ## $a 123 s.
500 ## $a Další vyd. 2001, 2006.
520 ## $a Přehled o angl. slovní zásobě, tvoření slov a lexikální sémantice. Upravená a aktulizovaná verze českého vyd. z r. 1992
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